TEJON RANCH CO MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL POSITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Form 10-K)
See Part I, “Forward-Looking Statements” for our caution regarding forward-looking information.
This discussion and analysis is based on, should be read together with, and is qualified in its entirety by, the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 15(a)1 of this Form 10-K, beginning at page F-1. It also should be read in conjunction with the disclosure under "Forward-Looking Statements" in Part 1 of this Form 10-K. When this report uses the words "we," "us," "our," "Tejon," "TRC," and the "Company," they refer to
Tejon Ranch Co.and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires. References herein to fiscal year refer to our fiscal years ended or ending December 31.
We are a diversified real estate development and agribusiness company committed to responsibly using our land and resources to meet the housing, employment, and lifestyle needs of Californians and to create value for our shareholders. In support of these objectives, we have been investing in land planning and entitlement activities for new industrial and residential land developments and in infrastructure improvements within our active industrial development. Our prime asset is approximately 270,000 acres of contiguous, largely undeveloped land that, at its most southerly border, is 60 miles north of
Los Angelesand, at its most northerly border, is 15 miles east of Bakersfield. Our business model is designed to create value through the execution of commercial/industrial development, entitlement and development of land for resort/residential uses, and the maximization of earnings from operating assets, while at the same time protecting significant portions of our land for conservation purposes. We operate our business near one of the country's largest population centers, which is expected to continue to grow well into the future.
We currently operate in five business segments: commercial/industrial real estate development; resort/residential real estate development; mineral resources; Agriculture; and ranch operations.
Our commercial/industrial real estate segment generates revenues from real estate leases, and land and building sales. The primary commercial/industrial development is TRCC. The resort/residential real estate development segment is actively involved in the land entitlement and development process internally and through a joint venture. Within our resort/residential segment, the three active mixed-use master plan developments are MV, Centennial, and Grapevine. Our mineral resources segment generates revenues from oil and gas royalty leases, rock and aggregate mining leases, a lease with National Cement and sales of water. The farming segment produces revenues from the sale of wine grapes, almonds, and pistachios. Lastly, the ranch operation segment consists of game management revenues and ancillary land uses such as grazing leases and filming.
For 2021, net income attributable to common stockholders was
$5,348,000compared to net loss attributed to common stockholders of $740,000in 2020. Over the comparative period, commercial/industrial segment profits and our share of equity in earnings from our unconsolidated joint ventures increased $5,109,000and $4,698,000, respectively. The increase in 38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- commercial/industrial segment profits was attributable to two land parcels sales comprised of 55.96 acres for a total of $10,035,000. The increase in equity in earnings was primarily attributable to our share of the sale of lots 18 and 19 held by our joint venture with Rockefeller. Additionally, profits from mineral resources segment increased by $3,106,000as a result of more water sales during the year due to dry 2021 winter conditions and low SWP allocations. The above mentioned increases were partially offset by a decline in farming segment profits of $1,840,000. The decline was primarily attributable to a decline in almond revenues due to supply chain disruptions and a decrease in pistachio revenue due to reduced insurance proceeds received when compared to the prior year. For 2020, net loss attributable to common stockholders was $740,000compared to net income attributed to common stockholders of $10,580,000in 2019. Our commercial/industrial segment greatly influenced our 2020 operating results. Over the comparative period, commercial/industrial segment revenues and results from our commercial joint ventures declined $7,256,000and $12,071,000, respectively. The decline is primarily attributed to the fact that in 2019, there were several major real estate asset contributions and sales made by the Company to its joint ventures, as described below, that did not occur in 2020. From a joint venture operations standpoint, our share of TA/Petro operating results declined $3,088,000after experiencing the effects of California'sstay-at-home orders and other social distancing initiatives. Those factors resulted in lower fuel volumes that led to lower fuel margins. Additionally, TA/Petro had closed down its full service restaurants for most of the year as capacity limitations made operating economically unfeasible. Our farming segment saw a $5,465,000decline in revenues as a result of lower pistachio bonuses, pistachio yields, and a decline in almond pricing. Declines in revenues were partially offset by lower commercial expense, as a result of reduced cost of sales of $5,839,000and income taxes of $3,151,000. Additionally, the Company benefited from recognizing a gain on sale of building and land of $1,331,000along with experiencing a $1,934,000reduction in other expense primarily associated with the disposal of a wine grape vineyard in 2019. During 2022, we will continue to invest funds towards litigation defense, permits, and maps for our master plan mixed-use developments and for master project infrastructure and vertical development within our active commercial and industrial development. Securing entitlements for our land is a long, arduous process that can take several years and involves litigation. During the next few years, our net income will fluctuate from year-to-year based upon, among other factors, commodity prices, production within our farming segment, the timing of land sales and the leasing of land and/or industrial space within our industrial developments, and equity in earnings realized from our unconsolidated joint ventures. This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations provides a narrative discussion of our results of operations. It contains the results of operations for each operating segment of the business and is followed by a discussion of our financial position. It is useful to read the business segment information in conjunction with Note 16 (Reporting Segments and Related Information) of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Critical accounting estimates
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in
the United States, or GAAP, requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We consider an accounting estimate to be critical if: (1) the accounting estimate requires us to make assumptions about matters that were highly uncertain at the time the accounting estimate was made, and (2) changes in the estimates that are likely to occur from period to period, or use of different estimates that we reasonably could have used in the current period, would have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to revenue recognition, impairment of long-lived assets, capitalization of costs, allocation of costs related to land sales and leases, and stock compensation. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. Management has discussed the development and selection of these critical accounting estimates with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors and the Audit Committee has reviewed the foregoing disclosure. In addition, there are other items within our financial statements that require estimation, but are not deemed critical as defined above. Changes in estimates used in these and other items could have a material impact on our financial statements. See also Note 1 (Summary of Significant Accounting Policies) of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which discusses accounting policies that we have selected from acceptable alternatives.
We believe that the following critical accounting estimates reflect our most significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements:
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets - We evaluate our property and equipment and development projects for impairment on an ongoing basis. Our evaluation for impairment involves an initial assessment of each real estate development to determine 39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- whether events or changes in circumstances exist that may indicate that the carrying amounts of a real estate development are no longer recoverable. Possible indications of impairment may include events or changes in circumstances affecting the entitlement process, government regulation, litigation, geographical demand for new housing, and market conditions related to pricing of new homes. When events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of assets contained in our financial statements may not be recoverable. We make significant assumptions to evaluate each real estate development for possible indications of impairment. These assumptions include the identification of appropriate and comparable market prices, the consideration of changes to legal factors or the business climate, and assumptions surrounding continued positive cash flows and development costs. Considering that the planned development communities will be in a location that does not currently have many comparable homes, the Company must make assumptions surrounding the expected ability to sell the real estate assets at a price that is in excess of current accumulated costs. We use our internal forecasts and business plans to estimate future prices, absorption, production, and costs. We develop our forecasts based on recent sales data, historical absorption and production data, input from marketing consultants, as well as discussions with commercial real estate brokers and potential purchasers of our farming products. The impairment calculation compares the carrying value of the asset to the asset's estimated future cash flows (undiscounted). If the estimated future cash flows are less than the carrying value of the asset, we calculate an impairment loss. The impairment loss calculation compares the carrying value of the asset to the asset's estimated fair value, which may be based on estimated future cash flows (discounted). We recognize an impairment loss equal to the amount by which the asset's carrying value exceeds the asset's estimated fair value. If we recognize an impairment loss, the adjusted carrying amount of the asset will be its new cost basis. For a depreciable long-lived asset, the new cost basis will be depreciated (amortized) over the remaining useful life of that asset. Restoration of a previously recognized impairment loss is prohibited. If actual results are not consistent with our assumptions and judgments used in estimating future cash flows and asset fair values, we may be exposed to impairment losses that could be material to our results of operations.
Currently, there are no assets within any of our operating segments that we believe are at risk of impairment due to market conditions and we have not identified any indicators of depreciation.
We believe that the accounting estimate related to asset impairment is a critical accounting estimate because it is very susceptible to change from period to period; it requires management to make assumptions about future prices, production, and costs, and the potential impact of a loss from impairment could be material to our earnings. Management's assumptions regarding future cash flows from real estate developments and farming operations have fluctuated in the past due to changes in prices, absorption, production and costs and are expected to continue to do so in the future as market conditions change. Allocation of Costs Related to Land Sales and Leases - When we sell or lease land within one of our real estate developments, as we are currently doing within TRCC, and we have not completed all infrastructure development related to the total project, we determine the appropriate costs of sales for the sold land and the timing of recognition of the sale. In the calculation of cost of sales or allocations to leased land, we use estimates and forecasts to determine total costs at completion of the development project. These estimates of final development costs can change as conditions in the market and costs of construction change. In preparing these estimates, we use internal budgets, forecasts, and engineering reports to help us estimate future costs related to infrastructure that has not been completed. These estimates become more accurate as the development proceeds forward, due to historical cost numbers and to the continued refinement of the development plan. These estimates are updated periodically throughout the year so that, at the ultimate completion of development, all costs have been allocated. Any increases to our estimates in future years will negatively impact net profits and liquidity due to an increased need for funds to complete development. If, however, this estimate decreases, net profits as well as liquidity will improve. We believe that the estimates used related to cost of sales and allocations to leased land are critical accounting estimates and will become even more significant as we continue to move forward as a real estate development company. The estimates used are very susceptible to change from period to period, due to the fact that they require management to make assumptions about costs of construction, absorption of product, and timing of project completion, and changes to these estimates could have a material impact on the recognition of profits from the sale of land within our developments.
Recent accounting pronouncements
For a discussion of recent accounting pronouncements, see Note 1 (Summary of Significant Accounting Policies) to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Operating results by segment
We evaluate the performance of our reporting segments separately to monitor the different factors affecting financial results. Each reporting segment is subject to review and evaluation as we monitor current market conditions, market opportunities, and available resources. The performance of each reporting segment is discussed below:
Real Estate – Commercial/Industrial
($ in thousands) 2021 2020
Commercial/industrial revenues Pastoria Energy Facility Lease
$ 4,380 $ 4,584$
TRCC Leasing 1,724 1,744
TRCC management fees and reimbursements 692 715 1,172 Commercial leases 627 580 658 Communication leases 952 927 924 Landscaping and other 1,066 986 1,029 Land sales 10,035 - 6,621 Total commercial revenues
$ 19,476 $ 9,536 $ 16,792Total commercial expenses $ 11,953 $ 7,122 $ 12,961
Commercial/industrial operating result
2021 Operational Highlights: •During 2021, commercial/industrial segment revenues increased
$9,940,000, or 104%, from $9,536,000in 2020 to $19,476,000. During 2021, the Company sold two land parcels, comprised of 55.96 acres, for $10,035,000. The first sale comprised of a 38.86 acre land parcel contributed with a fair value of $8,464,000to TRC-MRC 4, LLC. The Company recognized revenues of $5,679,000and deferred profit of $2,785,000after applying the five-step revenue recognition model in accordance with ASC Topic 606 - Revenue From Contracts With Customers and ASC Topic 323, Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures. The second sale was to a third party for a 17.1 acre parcel for total consideration of $4,665,000. Under the terms of the sale, the Company recognized $4,355,000in revenues and deferred $300,000that will be recognized upon completion of a performance obligation in 2022. There were no land sales in 2020. •Commercial/industrial real estate segment expenses increased $4,831,000, or 68%, from $7,122,000in 2020 to $11,953,000in 2021. The increase in expenses is primarily attributed to land cost of sales of $4,246,000and an increase in TCWD water assessments of $535,000that is associated with the drought conditions.
•Please refer to Section 1, “Business – Real Estate Development Overview” for a discussion of minimum rent deferrals resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.
2020 operational highlights:
•During 2020, commercial/industrial segment revenues decreased
$7,256,000, or 43%, from $16,792,000in 2019 to $9,536,000. During 2020, the Company did not have any land sales, which contributed $6,621,000of the decrease. Additionally, management fees and reimbursements decreased $457,000primarily because there were no real estate construction projects in 2020. • Commercial/industrial real estate segment expenses decreased $5,839,000, or 45%, from $12,961,000in 2019 to $7,122,000in 2020. In the absence of land sales, there was a $4,745,000decrease in land cost of sales. The remainder of the decrease is attributed to lower fixed water assessments from TCWD. For 2022, TRCC will continue to be the driver of new activity within the Company as construction is completed on a 629,274 square-foot industrial building, anticipated construction commencement of a multi-family project in late 2022, and finalizing plans for an up to 445,000 square-foot building that will begin construction in 2023. We also expect the commercial/industrial segment to continue to experience operating costs, net of amounts capitalized, primarily related to professional service fees, marketing, commissions, planning, and staffing costs as we continue to pursue these development opportunities. These costs are expected to remain consistent with current levels of expense with any variability in the future tied to specific absorption transactions in any given year. TCWD water assessments may vary depending on water availability and its ability to sell water. 41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The actual timing and completion of development is difficult to predict due to the uncertainties of the market. Infrastructure development and marketing activities and costs will continue over several years as we develop our land holdings. Prices for building materials such as concrete and steel have increased over the past year and have longer than usual lead times. We will also continue to evaluate land resources to determine the highest and best uses for our land holdings. Future sales of land are dependent on market circumstances and specific opportunities. Our goal in the future is to increase land value and create future revenue growth through planning and development of commercial and industrial properties.
See Article 1, “Business – Real Estate Development Overview” for a discussion of the market outlook for next year.
Real Estate – Resort/Residential
Our resort/residential segment activities include defending entitlements, land planning and pre-construction engineering and conservation activities for our Centennial, Grapevine, and MV projects.
We are in the preliminary stages of development; therefore, no revenue is attributed to this segment for these reporting periods.
2021 operational highlights:
•In 2021, resort/residential segment expenses increased
$111,000to $1,723,000, or 7%, when compared to $1,612,000in 2020. The increase is primarily associated with payroll expenses net of capitalization associated with the Company's development efforts.
2020 operational highlights:
•In 2020, resort/residential segment expenses decreased
$635,000to $1,612,000, or 28%, when compared to $2,247,000in 2019. The decrease is attributed to an $801,000decrease in professional services as there were fewer strategic planning efforts in 2020. This decrease was partially offset by a $171,000increase in payroll and overhead costs, net of capitalization, as a result of right sizing initiatives and the issuance of performance based stock compensation. The resort/residential segment will continue to incur costs in the future related to professional service fees, public relations costs, and staffing costs as we continue forward with permitting activities for the above communities. We expect these expenses to remain consistent with current years cost in the near term and only begin to increase as we move into the development phase of each project in the future. The actual timing and completion of entitlement-related activities and the beginning of development is difficult to predict due to the uncertainties of the approval process, the length of time related to litigation defense, and the status of the economy. We will also continue to evaluate land resources to determine the highest and best use for our land holdings. Our long-term goal through this process is to increase the value of our land and create future revenue opportunities through resort and residential development. We are continuously monitoring the markets in order to identify the appropriate time in the future to begin infrastructure improvements and lot sales. Our long-term business plan of developing the communities of MV, Centennial, and Grapevine remains unchanged. As home buyer trends change in Californiato a more suburban orientation and the economy stabilizes, we believe the perception of land values will also begin to improve. Long-term macro fundamentals, primarily California'spopulation growth and household formation will also support housing demand in our region. Californiaalso has a significant documented housing shortage, which we believe our communities will help ease as the population base within Californiacontinues to grow.
See Section 1, “Business – Real Estate Development Overview” for a more in-depth discussion of real estate development activities.
($ in thousands) 2021 2020 2019 Mineral resources revenues Oil and gas
$ 737 $ 654 $ 1,842Rock aggregate 1,910 1,407 1,467 Cement 2,210 2,214 1,908 Exploration leases 119 100 101 Water sales 15,523 5,909 3,997
Reimbursables and other 488
Total mineral resources revenues
Total mineral resources expenses
Operating income from mineral resources
$ 7,428 $ 4,322 $ 3,9732021 2020 2019 Oil and gas Oil production (barrels) 75,006 114,567 220,000 Average price per barrel $69.00 $46.00 $61.00Blended royalty rate 13.9% 11.7% 13.2% Natural gas production (millions of cubic feet) 64,000 207,000 312,000 Average price per thousand cubic feet $1.50 $1.06 $1.58Blended royalty rate 13.9% 11.7% 13.2% Water Water sold in acre-feet 13,651 5,022 4,482 Average price per acre-feet $1,137 $1,177 $750Cement Tons sold 1,275,000 1,253,000 1,117,000 Average price per ton $1.73 $1.77 $1.71Rock/Aggregate Tons sold 1,466,000 1,272,000 1,283,000 Average price per ton $1.30 $1.11 $1.03
Note: Differences between the revenues calculated in this table and the revenues reported in the previous table are attributed to rounding and the level of detail presented on the production units shown.
2021 operational highlights:
•Revenues from our mineral resources segment increased
$10,251,000, or 95%, to $20,987,000in 2021 when compared to $10,736,000in 2020. The increase is attributed to a $9,614,000increase in water sales driven by dry 2021 winter conditions and low SWP allocations. Comparatively, the Company sold 13,651 acre-feet and 5,022 acre-feet in 2021 and 2020, respectively. •Rock aggregate royalties increased as a result of higher demand and better pricing, fueled by the continuing growth in infrastructure projects throughout the state.
• Spending on mineral resources increased
2020 operational highlights:
•Revenues from our mineral resources segment increased
$945,000, or 10%, to $10,736,000in 2020 when compared to $9,791,000in 2019. The increase is attributed to a $1,912,000increase in water sales. During 2019, the Company had an unfavorable water sales adjustment of $1,050,000that was tied to an increase in SWP allocation levels, which adversely affected sales pricing. In 2020 however, SWP allocation levels were much lower, which in turn improved pricing, resulting in additional water sales revenues. Lastly, there were 540 additional acre-feet of water sold during 2020 when compared to 2019.
• There has been an increase in royalties on cement from
• Offsetting the favorable revenue increases was a
$1,188,000decrease in oil and gas royalties resulting from lower prices for much of 2020 and lower demand driven by social distancing initiatives such as California'sstay-at-home orders. • Mineral resource expense increased $596,000, or 10%, to $6,414,000in 2020 when compared to $5,818,000in 2019. Of the $596,000increase, $469,000is attributed to increased water cost of sales as a result of selling additional water. The remainder is attributed to an increase in property taxes that occurred because of higher mineral assessments on the Company's land.
For more details on mineral resource transactions, see Section 1 “Business – Mineral Resources”.
Farming ($ in thousands) 2021 2020 2019 Farming revenues Almonds
$ 3,100 $ 5,021 $ 7,310Pistachios 4,293 5,636 7,466 Wine grapes 2,850 2,589 3,740 Hay 408 419 468 Other 388 201 347 Total farming revenues $ 11,039 $ 13,866 $ 19,331Total farming expenses $ 14,116 $ 15,103 $ 15,251Operating Income from farming $ (3,077) $ (1,237) $ 4,080December 31, 2021 December 31, 2020 Change Average Average Average ($ in thousands) Revenue Quantity Sold2 Price Revenue Quantity Sold2 Price Revenue Quantity Sold2 Price ALMONDS (lbs.) Current year crop $ 2,257945 $ 2.39 $ 4,2072,078 $ 2.02 $ (1,950)(1,133) $ 0.37Prior crop years 670 377 $ 1.78783 405 $ 1.93(113) (28) (0.15) Prior crop price adjustment - - - Signing bonus - 31 (31) Crop Insurance 173 - 173 Subtotal Almonds1 $ 3,1001,322 $ 2.21 $ 5,0212,483 $ 2.01 $ (1,921)(1,161) $ 0.20PISTACHIOS (lbs.) Current year crop $ 3,4621,615 $ 2.14 $ 932456 $ 2.04 $ 2,5301,159 $ 0.10Prior crop years - - - 25 13 1.92 (25) (13) (1.92) Prior crop price adjustment 365 890 (525) Crop Insurance 466 3,789 (3,323) Subtotal Pistachios1 $ 4,2931,615 $ 2.14 $ 5,636469 $ 2.04 $ (1,343)1,146 $ 0.10WINE GRAPES (tons) Current year crop $ 2,8509 $ 316.67 $ 2,5899 $ 287.67 $ 261- $ 29.00Crop Insurance - - - Subtotal Wine Grapes $ 2,8509 $ 316.67 $ 2,5899 $ 287.67 $ 261- $ 29.00Other Hay $ 408 $ 419 $ (11)Other farming revenues 388 201 187 Total farming revenues $ 11,039 $ 13,866 $ (2,827)
1 The calculation of the average price reflects the sale of the almond and pistachio harvests during the calendar year in question, excluding any price adjustment. 2 Units of almonds and pistachios are presented in thousands of pounds while wine grapes are presented in thousands of tons.
2021 operational highlights:
• In 2021, revenues from the agricultural segment decreased
•Almond revenues decreased
$1,921,000due to supply chain disruptions that impacted our ability to deliver 2021 almond crop. In particular, there is a shortage of truck drivers needed to transport goods to the Los Angelesand Long Beachports so that goods can be shipped overseas. Additionally, there is a shortage in food grade shipping containers that are necessary to ship almonds overseas. Thus far, these disruptions have continued into 2022 but we expect to sell the remainder of our 2021 crop in 2022. •Pistachio revenues decreased $1,343,000primarily due to the decrease in insurance proceeds received in 2021 when compared to 2020. In 2020, we received pistachio insurance proceeds of $3,789,000, but because the 2021 pistachio crop year is a down bearing production year the insurance proceeds were only $466,000, a decrease of $3,323,000. The primary driver leading to higher insurance proceeds in 2020, was the assumption that 2020 production was based on yields typically seen during an on production year, which is much higher than that of the current down bearing production year. With respect to yields, the Company sold 1,615,000 and 456,000 pounds of pistachios in 2021 and 2020, respectively. The 2021 pistachio yields were inline with a normal off-production year.
• Wine grape revenues increased
December 31, 2020 December 31, 2019 Change Average Average Average ($ in thousands) Revenue Quantity Sold2 Price Revenue Quantity Sold2 Price Revenue Quantity Sold2 Price ALMONDS (lbs.) Current year crop
$ 4,2072,078 $ 2.02 $ 6,3592,252 $ 2.82 $ (2,152)(174) $ (0.80)Prior crop years 783 405 1.93 568 227 $ 2.50215 178 (0.57) Prior crop price adjustment - (61) 61 Signing bonus 31 28 3 Crop Insurance - $ 416 $ (416)Subtotal Almonds1 $ 5,0212,483 $ 2.01 $ 7,3102,479 $ 2.79 $ (2,289)4 $ (0.78)PISTACHIOS (lbs.) Current year crop $ 932456 $ 2.04 $ 1,624819 $ 1.98 $ (692)(363) $ 0.06Prior crop years 25 13 1.92 976 558 1.75 (951) (545) 0.17 Prior crop price adjustment 890 3,807 (2,917) Insurance 3,789 1,059 2,730 Subtotal Pistachios1 $ 5,636469 $ 2.04 $ 7,4661,377 $ 1.89 $ (1,830)(908) $ 0.15WINE GRAPES (tons) Current year crop $ 2,5899 $ 287.67 $ 3,73014 $ 266.43 $ (1,141)(5) $ 21.24Insurance - 10 (10) Subtotal Wine Grapes $ 2,5899 $ 287.67 $ 3,74014 $ 266.43 $ (1,151)(5) $ 21.24Other Hay $ 419 $ 468 $ (49)Other farming revenues 201 347 (146) Total farming revenues $ 13,866 $ 19,331 $ (5,465)
1 The calculation of the average price reflects the sale of the almond and pistachio harvests during the calendar year in question, excluding any price adjustment. 2 Units of almonds and pistachios are presented in thousands of pounds while wine grapes are presented in thousands of tons.
2020 operational highlights:
• In 2020, revenue from the agricultural segment decreased
•Almond revenues decreased
$2,289,000as a result of lower pricing. California's2020 almond crop yielded in excess of 3 billion pounds, surpassing all previous production records. The increased yields were driven by favorable blooms along with new almond plantings coming into production throughout Californiain recent years. The mix of demand has been changed in the near term as a result of COVID-19 as more product is moving through wholesale markets and less through high end users such as restaurants. The global demand for almonds remains as strong as it was prior to the pandemic, with Indiaand Chinabeing the largest importer of Californiaalmonds. Although COVID-19 disrupted international trade during its early onset, it ultimately had a sparing effect on the Company's sales volumes. The aforementioned factors discussed are the primary drivers of the overall decline in pricing. •Pistachio revenues decreased $1,830,000. Although 2020 was not a down bearing year for pistachios, the crop did not receive adequate chilling hours as a result of the warm 2020 winter. Crops with inadequate chilling hours will have depressed yields and blooms. As a hedge against below average production for its almond and pistachio crops, the Company purchases crop production insurance annually. This insurance will pay for reduced production if crop production in the year falls below the insured levels. The Company filed a claim with its insurance provider in order to recuperate a portion of the reduced production revenues as a result of lost production. The insurance claim in the amount of $3,789,000was collected during the fourth quarter. •Wine grape revenues decreased $1,151,000due to less production, which was the result of removing a 313 acre vineyard. The vineyard was removed in 2020 as there was no longer interest for its fruit. The Company in late 2020 acquired a new sales contract for a different variety of grapes, resulting in the development of a new vineyard, which will ultimately replace this lost revenue stream.
For further details on farming operations, see Section 1 “Commercial Farming”.
Ranch Operations ($ in thousands) 2021 2020 2019 Ranch operations revenue Game management and other 1
$ 2,744 $ 2,097 $ 2,020Grazing 1,367 1,595 1,589 Total ranch operations revenues $ 4,111 $ 3,692 $ 3,609Total ranch operations expenses $ 4,679 $ 4,896 $ 5,316Operating loss from ranch operations $ (568) $ (1,204) $ (1,707)1 Game management and other revenues consist of revenues from hunting, filming, high desert hunt club (a premier upland bird hunting club), and other ancillary activities.
2021 operational highlights:
•Revenues from ranch operations increased
$419,000, or 11%, from $3,692,000in 2020 to $4,111,000in 2021, which is primarily attributed to an increase in guided hunts of $123,000and an increase in filming location fees of $292,000. Due to extended mandates and restrictions from COVID-19 in Los Angeles County, our vast open area was able to attract more production companies during 2021. As restrictions in Los Angeles Countycontinue into 2022, we expect to see the same level of interest for filming on our land. •Ranch operations expenses decreased $217,000, or 4%, to $4,679,000in 2021 from $4,896,000in 2020. The decrease is primarily attributed to reduced payroll and overhead expenses of $218,000.
2020 operational highlights:
• Income from ranch operations has increased
•Ranch operations expenses decreased
$420,000, or 8%, to $4,896,000in 2020 from $5,316,000in 2019. The decrease is primarily attributed to reduced payroll and overhead expenses of $332,000as a result of the Company's right sizing efforts. This segment also had notable decreases in fuel costs and fees of $56,000and $60,000, respectively. Other Income Total other income decreased $2,104,000, or 90%, from $2,325,000in 2020 to $221,000in 2021. In 2020, the Company sold building and land that was previously operated by a fast food tenant to its joint venture, Petro Travel Plaza LLC. The Company received a cash distribution of $2,000,000from the joint venture, and realized a Gain on Sale of Real Estate of $1,331,000. In addition, investment interest income decreased $489,000as a result of having less marketable securities invested throughout the year. Total other income increased $2,910,000, or 497%, from a loss of $585,000in 2019 to income of $2,325,000in 2020. In 2019, the Company recognized asset abandonment costs of $1,604,000, that was primarily related to a wine grape vineyard consisting of 313 acres. There were no similar abandonment costs recorded in 2020. Also in 2020, the Company sold building and land that was previously operated by a fast food tenant to its joint venture, Petro Travel Plaza LLC. The Company received a cash distribution of $2,000,000from the joint venture, and realized a Gain on Sale of Real Estate of $1,331,000. Offsetting these favorable variances in other income was a $355,000decrease in investment income that resulted from not reinvesting maturing securities in order to fund the Company's major development projects.
Corporate general and administrative costs increased
$413,000, or 4.4%, to $9,843,000during 2021 when compared to $9,430,000in 2020. The increase is attributed to a $255,000increase in insurance expense and a $128,000increase in director expenses associated with the expansion of the Board of Directors to fulfill Californiastate requirements on gender and underrepresented community requirements. Corporate general and administrative costs increased $69,000, or 0.7%, to $9,430,000during 2020 when compared to $9,361,000in 2019. The increase is attributed to an $1,182,000increase in stock compensation as a result of implementing a new performance stock compensation plan. This increase was offset by a $546,000decrease in payroll as a result of temporary cost cutting measures resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, a $426,000decrease in professional services, and a $139,000decrease in depreciation. 48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Equity in Earnings of Unconsolidated Joint VenturesEquity in earnings of unconsolidated joint ventures is an important and growing component of our commercial/industrial activities and in the future, equity in earnings of unconsolidated joint ventures can become a significant part of our operations within the resort/residential segment. We continue to use joint ventures to advance our development projects at TRCC. This allows us to combine our resources with other real estate companies and gain greater access to capital, share in the risks of real estate developments, and share in the operating expenses. More importantly, it allows us to better manage the deployment of our capital and increase our leasing portfolio. ($ in thousands) 2021 2020 2019 Equity in earnings (loss) Petro Travel Plaza Holdings LLC $ 4,957 $ 5,722 $ 8,810Five West Parcel, LLC - (2) 9,119 18-19 West, LLC 5,206 (68) (53) TRCC/Rock Outlet Center, LLC (1,443) (2,090) (1,921) TRC-MRC 1, LLC (7) 64 46 TRC-MRC 2, LLC 634 678 575 TRC-MRC 3, LLC (144) 200 (1) TRC-MRC 4, LLC (1) - -
Equity to results of unconsolidated joint ventures, net
2021 Operational Highlights:
In 2021, equity in profit of unconsolidated joint ventures increased
West LLCjoint venture had a purchase option in place with a third-party to purchase lots l8 and 19 at a price of $15,213,000. In November 2021, the third-party exercised the land option and purchased the land from the joint venture for $15,213,000. •The Petro Travel Plaza improved its fuel sales volume by 22% in 2021 when compared to 2020. However, the Company's share of operating results declined as a result of a 96% increase in the overall cost of fuel that was only partially mitigated by a 70% increase in fuel sales prices. Additionally, the joint venture also experienced an increase in labor costs due to increasing market wages. 2020 Operational Highlights:
During 2020, equity in earnings of unconsolidated joint ventures decreased
•Five West Parcel, LLC's operating results declined
$9,121,000when compared to 2019 because the joint venture in 2020 was focused on dissolution, which was completed in 2020. In 2019, the joint venture sold its building and land for $29,088,000, and recognized a gain of $17,537,000. The Company was entitled to 50% of the gain in 2019, explaining the year-over-year variance. •There was a $3,088,000decrease in our share of earnings from our TA/Petro joint venture. This joint venture was impacted by California'sstay-at home orders for most of 2020. As travelers were discouraged from travelling during the holidays, fuel sales volumes saw a 10% decline, causing a 22% decline in fuel margins. In addition, indoor dining restrictions forced the joint venture's full service restaurants to close which resulted in a 77% decline in revenues and a 78% decline in restaurant operating margins. 49 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
For the twelve months ended
December 31, 2021, the Company's net income tax expense was $3,821,000compared to $829,000for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. These represent effective income tax rates of approximately 42% and 1,011% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021and, 2020, respectively. Our effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2021was higher than the federal statutory rate in the United States, a result of permanent differences arising from stock compensation and non-deductible compensation under Section 162(m) of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. The discrete item associated with stock grants was triggered when stock grants were issued to participants at a price less than the original grant price, causing a deferred tax shortfall. The shortfall recognized during the year represents the reversal of excess deferred tax assets recognized in prior periods. The recognition of the shortfall is not anticipated to have an impact on the Company's current income tax payable. Lastly, the Company recorded a one time deferred tax liability true-up associated with capitalized stock compensation. As of December 31, 2021and 2020 we had an income tax payable of $1,217,000and income tax receivable of $1,497,000, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, we had net deferred tax liabilities of $2,898,000. Our largest deferred tax assets were made up of temporary differences related to the capitalization of costs, pension adjustments, interest rate swap, and stock compensation. Deferred tax liabilities consist of depreciation, deferred gains, joint venture differences, cost of sales adjustments, and straight-line rent. Due to the nature of most of our deferred tax assets, we believe they will be used in future years and an allowance is not necessary. The Company classifies interest and penalties incurred on tax payments as income tax expenses. The Company made income tax payments of $730,000in 2021 and 0 in 2020. The Company received refunds of $483,000in 2021 and $1,314,000in 2020.
For further details, see Note 12. (Income Taxes) of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included with this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Cash and capital resources
Cash flow and liquidity
Our financial position allows us to pursue our strategies of continued development of TRCC, funding of operating activities, land entitlement, development, and conservation. Accordingly, we have established well-defined priorities for our available cash, including investing in core operating segments to achieve profitable future growth. We have historically funded our operations with cash flows from operating activities, investment proceeds, and short-term borrowings from our bank credit facilities. In the past, we have also issued common stock and used the proceeds for capital investment activities. To enhance shareholder value, we will continue to make investments in our real estate segments to secure land entitlement approvals, build infrastructure for our developments, invest in to be leased assets, ensure adequate future water supplies, and provide funds for general land development activities. Within our farming segment, we will make investments as needed to improve efficiency and add capacity to its operations when it is profitable to do so. Our cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities totaled approximately
$47,178,000at December 31, 2021, a decrease of $10,913,000, or 19%, from the corresponding amount at the end of 2020. The following table summarizes the cash flow activities for the following years ended December 31: ($ in thousands) 2021 2020 2019 Operating activities $ 2,816 $ 15,481 $ 16,045Investing activities $ (14,652) $ 19,778 $ 828Financing activities $ (6,086) $ (7,045) $ (5,675)Cash flows provided by operating activities are primarily dependent upon the rental rates of our leases, the collectability of rent and recovery of operating expenses from our tenants, distributions from joint ventures, the success of our crops and commodity prices within our mineral resource segment.
In 2021, our operations generated
During 2020, our operations generated
$15,481,000in cash. A portion of these receipts came from distributions of $6,222,000from our Five West Parcel, TA/Petro and Majestic joint ventures, while another $5,427,000came in the form of farming receivable collections. 50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- During 2021, investing activities used $14,652,000, which was largely attributed to capital expenditures of $20,879,000used primarily for real estate development. Of the $20,879,000, we spent $4,004,000on general planning and final map preparation for Phase 1 of MV, $2,939,000on litigation defense for Centennial, and $1,121,000on litigation for Grapevine. At TRCC, we primarily used $4,906,000to expand water infrastructure at TRCC and early entitlement efforts for TRCC Residential. All real estate capital expenditures are inclusive of capitalized interest, payroll and overhead. Our mineral resources segment spent $2,415,000to acquire water for use as needed and for future residential development activity. Lastly, our farming segment had cash outlays of $7,416,000for cultural and water costs tied to crops not yet in production, developing new almond orchards, grape vineyards, and replacing old farm equipment. The Company also reinvested $14,586,000into marketable securities. Offsetting cash outlays were maturities on marketable securities of $6,249,000, proceeds from water sales of $9,534,000, distributions from unconsolidated joint ventures of $5,734,000, and net proceeds from land sales of $4,413,000. During 2020, investing activities provided $19,778,000, which was largely attributed to marketable securities maturities of $41,843,000. The maturities were used to fund capital expenditures of $22,259,000that was primarily related to our real estate development. Of the $22,259,000, we spent $4,132,000on general planning and final map preparation for Phase 1 of MV, $3,635,000on litigation defense for Centennial, and $1,997,000on re-entitlement and litigation for Grapevine. At TRCC, we primarily used $7,128,000to expand water infrastructure at TRCC and early entitlement efforts for TRCC Residential. All real estate capital expenditures are inclusive of capitalized interest, payroll and overhead. Our mineral resources segment spent $3,568,000to acquire water for use as needed and for our future residential developments. Lastly, our farming segment had cash outlays of $5,145,000for developing new almond orchards and replacing old farm equipment. Our estimated capital investment for 2022 is primarily related to our real estate projects as it was in 2021. These estimated investments include approximately $12,716,000of infrastructure development at TRCC-East to support continued commercial retail and industrial development and expanding water facilities to support future anticipated absorption. We are also investing approximately $3,337,000to continue developing new almond orchards, wine grape vineyards, and replacing old farming equipment. The farm investments are part of a long-term farm management program to redevelop declining orchards and vineyards allowing the Company to maintain and improve future farm revenues. We expect to possibly invest up to $8,513,000for permitting activities, litigation defense, predevelopment activities and land planning design at MV, Centennial, and Grapevine. The timing of these investments is dependent on our coordination efforts with Los Angeles Countyregarding litigation efforts for Centennial, permitting activities for Grapevine, and design, civil engineering, land planning and design, for MV. Our plans also include $4,544,000for payment of annual water inventory and water related investments. We are also planning to potentially invest up to $502,000in the normal replacement of operating equipment, such as ranch equipment, and vehicles. We capitalize interest cost as a cost of the project only during the period for which activities necessary to prepare an asset for its intended use are ongoing, provided that expenditures for the asset have been made and interest cost has been incurred. Capitalized interest for the years ended December 31, 2021and 2020, of $2,459,000and $2,713,000, respectively, is classified in real estate development. We also capitalized payroll costs related to development, pre-construction, and construction projects which aggregated $2,467,000and $3,520,000for the years ended December 31, 2021and 2020, respectively. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. As noted above, these costs are included in the above investment numbers.
In 2021, financing activities used
In 2020, fundraising activities used
It is difficult to accurately predict cash flows due to the nature of our businesses and fluctuating economic conditions. Our earnings and cash flows will be affected from period to period by the commodity nature of our farming and mineral operations, the timing of sales and leases of property within our development projects, and the beginning of development within our residential projects. The timing of sales and leases within our development projects is difficult to predict due to the time necessary to complete the development process and negotiate sales or lease contracts. Often, the timing aspect of land development can lead to particular years or periods having more or less earnings than comparable periods. Based on our experience, we believe we will have adequate cash flows, cash balances, and availability on our line of credit over the next twelve months to fund internal operations. As we move forward with the completion of the litigation, permitting and engineering design for our master planned communities and prepare to move into the development stage, we will need to secure additional funding through the issuance of equity and secure other forms of financing such as joint ventures and possibly debt and equity financing. 51 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Capital structure and financial situation
made up of
In 2014, the Company as borrower, entered into an Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, a Term Note and a Revolving Line of Credit Note, with Wells Fargo, or collectively the Credit Facility. The Credit Facility added a
$70,000,000term loan, or Term Loan, to the then existing $30,000,000revolving line of credit, or RLC. In 2019, the Company amended the Term Note (Amended Term Note) and extended its maturity to June 2029and amended the RLC to expand the capacity from $30,000,000to $35,000,000and extend the maturity to October 2024. The Amended Term Loan had an outstanding balance of $50,837,000as of December 31, 2021and an outstanding balance of $54,887,000as of December 31, 2020. The interest rate per annum applicable to the Amended Term Note is LIBOR (as defined in the Term Note) plus a margin of 170 basis points. The interest rate for the Amended Term Note has been fixed at 4.16% through the use of an interest rate swap agreement. The Amended Term Note requires monthly amortization payments, with the outstanding principal amount due June 5, 2029. The Amended Term Note is secured by the Company's farmland and farm assets, which include equipment, crops and crop receivables; the PEF power plant lease and lease site; and related accounts and other rights to payment and inventory. The RLC had no outstanding balance at December 31, 2021and December 31, 2020. At the Company's option, the interest rate on this line of credit can float at 1.50% over a selected LIBOR rate or can be fixed at 1.50% above LIBOR for a fixed rate term. During the term of this RLC, the Company can borrow at any time and partially or wholly repay any outstanding borrowings and then re-borrow, as necessary. Any future borrowings under the RLC will be used for ongoing working capital requirements and other general corporate purposes. To maintain availability of funds under the RLC, undrawn amounts under the RLC will accrue a commitment fee of 10 basis points per annum. The Company's ability to borrow additional funds in the future under the RLC is subject to compliance with certain financial covenants and making certain representations and warranties, which are typical in this type of borrowing arrangement. The Amended Note and RLC, collectively the Amended Credit Facility, requires compliance with three financial covenants: (i) total liabilities divided by tangible net worth not greater than 0.75 to 1.0 at each quarter end; (ii) a debt service coverage ratio not less than 1.25 to 1.00 as of each quarter end on a rolling four quarter basis; and (iii) maintain liquid assets equal to or greater than $20,000,000, including availability on the RLC. At December 31, 2021and December 31, 2020, the Company was in compliance with all financial covenants. The Amended Credit Facility also contains customary negative covenants that limit the ability of the Company to, among other things, make capital expenditures, incur indebtedness and issue guaranties, consummate certain assets sales, acquisitions or mergers, make investments, pay dividends or repurchase stock, or incur liens on any assets. The Amended Credit Facility contains customary events of default, including: failure to make required payments; failure to comply with terms of the Amended Credit Facility; bankruptcy and insolvency; and a change in control without consent of the bank (which consent will not be unreasonably withheld). The Amended Credit Facility contains other customary terms and conditions, including representations and warranties, which are typical for credit facilities of this type. We also have a $4,750,000promissory note agreement with principal and interest due monthly. The interest rate on this promissory note is 4.25% per annum, with principal and interest payments ending on September 1, 2028. The proceeds from this promissory note were used to eliminate debt that had been previously used to provide long-term financing for a building being leased to Starbucks and provide additional working capital for future investment. In March 2020, the Company made an additional payment of $687,000that was applied to the principal of the note. Subsequent principal and interest payments were reduced to $28,000per month. The additional principal payment was tied to the release of collateral, which in April 2020was contributed to Petro Travel Plaza LLC. The balance of this long-term debt instrument included in "Notes payable" above approximates the fair value of the instrument. The balance as of December 31, 2021is $1,947,000. Our current and future capital resource requirements will be provided primarily from current cash and marketable securities, cash flow from on-going operations, distributions from joint ventures, proceeds from the sale of developed and undeveloped parcels, potential sales of assets, additional use of debt or drawdowns against our line-of-credit, proceeds from the reimbursement of public infrastructure costs through CFD bond debt (described below under "Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements"), and the issuance of common stock. In May 2019, we filed an updated shelf registration statement on Form S-3 that went effective in May 2019. Under the shelf registration statement, we may offer and sell in the future one or more 52 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- offerings, common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants or any combination of the foregoing. The shelf registration allows for efficient and timely access to capital markets and when combined with our other potential funding sources just noted, provides us with a variety of capital funding options that can then be used and appropriately matched to the funding needs of the Company. As noted above, at December 31, 2021, we had $47,178,000in cash and securities and as of the filing date of this Form 10-K, we had $35,000,000available on credit lines to meet any short-term liquidity needs. We continue to expect that substantial investments will be required in order to develop our land assets. In order to meet these capital requirements, we may need to secure additional debt financing and continue to renew our existing credit facilities. In addition to debt financing, we will use other capital alternatives such as joint ventures with financial partners, sales of assets, and the issuance of common stock. We will use a combination of the above funding sources to properly match funding requirements with the assets or development project being funded. As we move into 2022, we will be evaluating various options for funding the potential start of development projects. There is no assurance that we can obtain financing or that we can obtain financing at favorable terms. We believe we have adequate capital resources to fund our cash needs and our capital investment requirements in the near-term as described earlier in the cash flow and liquidity discussions.
Cash contractual obligations
The following table summarizes our contractual cash obligations and commercial commitments as of
Payments Due by Period Less than a More than 5 ($ in thousands) Total year 1-3 years 3-5 years years
Contractual Obligations: Estimated water payments
$ 285,566 $ 11,452 $ 23,945 $ 25,404 $ 224,765Long-term debt 52,784 4,475 9,596 10,454 28,259 Interest on long-term debt 10,624 2,098 3,613 2,778 2,135 Cash contract commitments 9,429 6,184 1,656 518 1,071 Defined Benefit Plan 4,647 317 712 973 2,645 SERP 5,230 526 997 1,115 2,592 Financing fees 163 163 - - - Operating lease 27 16 11 - - Total contractual obligations $ 368,470 $ 25,231
The table above only includes contracts that include fixed or minimum obligations. It does not include normal purchases, which are made in the normal course of business.
As discussed in Note 15 (Retirement Plans) of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, we have long-term liabilities for deferred employee compensation, including pension and supplemental retirement plans. Payments in the above table reflect estimates of future defined benefit plan contributions from the Company to the plan trust, estimates of payments to employees from the plan trust, and estimates of future payments to employees from the Company that are in the SERP program. During 2021, we made pension contributions of
$165,000and it is projected that we will make a similar contribution in 2022. Our cash contract commitments consist of contracts in various stages of completion related to infrastructure development within our industrial developments and entitlement costs related to our industrial and residential development projects. Also, included in the cash contract commitments are estimated fees earned in 2014 by a consultant, related to the entitlement of the Grapevine Development Area. The Company exited a consulting contract in 2014 related to the Grapevine Developmentand is obligated to pay an earned incentive fee at the time of successful receipt of litigated project entitlements and at a value measurement date five-years after entitlements have been achieved for Grapevine. The final amount of the incentive fees will not be finalized until the future payment dates. The Company believes that net savings from exiting the contract over this future time period will more than offset the incentive payment costs. Estimated water payments include the Nickel water contract, which obligates us to purchase 6,693 acre-feet of water annually through 2044 and SWP contracts with Wheeler Ridge Maricopa Water Storage District, Tejon-Castac Water District, Tulare Lake Basin Water Storage District, and Dudley-Ridge Water Storage District. These contracts for the supply of future water run through 2035. Please refer to Note 6 (Long-Term Water Assets) of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding water assets. 53 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Off-balance sheet arrangements
The following table sets out the potential obligations we have in relation to CFDs.
Amount of Commitment Expiration Per Period ($ in thousands) Total < 1 year 2 -3 Years 4 -5 Years After 5 Years Other Commercial Commitments: Standby letter of credit
$ 4,393 $ 4,393$ - $ - $ - Total other commercial commitments $ 4,393 $ 4,393$ - $ - $ - The Tejon Ranch Public Facilities Financing Authority, or TRPFFA, is a joint powers authority formed by Kern Countyand TCWD to finance public infrastructure within the Company's Kern Countydevelopments. TRPFFA created two CFD's, the West CFD and the East CFD. The West CFD has placed liens on 420 acres of the Company's land to secure payment of special taxes related to $28,620,000of bond debt sold by TRPFFA for TRCC-West. The East CFD has placed liens on 1,931 acres of the Company's land to secure payments of special taxes related to $75,965,000of bond debt sold by TRPFFA for TRCC-East. At TRCC-West, the West CFD has no additional bond debt approved for issuance. At TRCC-East, the East CFD has approximately $44,035,000of additional bond debt authorized by TRPFFA. In connection with the sale of bonds there is a standby letter of credit for $4,393,000related to the issuance of East CFD bonds. The standby letter of credit is in place to provide additional credit enhancement and cover approximately two years' worth of interest on the outstanding bonds. This letter of credit will not be drawn upon unless the Company, as the largest landowner in the CFD, fails to make its property tax payments. As development occurs within TRCC-East there is a mechanism in the bond documents to reduce the amount of the letter of credit. The Company believes that the letter of credit will never be drawn upon. This letter of credit is for a two-year period of time and will be renewed in two-year intervals as necessary. The annual cost related to the letter of credit is approximately $68,000. The assessment of each individual property sold or leased within each CFD is not determinable at this time because it is based on the current tax rate and the assessed value of the property at the time of sale or on its assessed value at the time it is leased to a third-party. Accordingly, the Company is not required to recognize an obligation at December 31, 2021. At December 31, 2021, aggregate outstanding debt of unconsolidated joint ventures was $141,917,000. We guarantee $127,069,000of this debt, relating to our joint ventures with Rockefeller and Majestic. Because of positive cash flow generation within the Rockefeller and Majestic joint ventures, we do not expect the guarantee to ever be called upon. We do not provide a guarantee on the $14,848,000of debt related to our joint venture with TA/Petro. 54 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
EBITDA represents earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization, a non-GAAP financial measure, and is used by us and others as a supplemental measure of performance. We use Adjusted EBITDA to assess the performance of our core operations, for financial and operational decision making, and as a supplemental or additional means of evaluating period-to-period comparisons on a consistent basis. Adjusted EBITDA is calculated as EBITDA, excluding stock compensation expense and asset abandonment charges. We believe Adjusted EBITDA provides investors relevant and useful information because it permits investors to view income from our operations on an unleveraged basis before the effects of taxes, depreciation and amortization, stock compensation expense, and abandonment charges. By excluding interest expense and income, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA allow investors to measure our performance independent of our capital structure and indebtedness and, therefore, allow for a more meaningful comparison of our performance to that of other companies, both in the real estate industry and in other industries. We believe that excluding charges related to share-based compensation facilitates a comparison of our operations across periods and among other companies without the variances caused by different valuation methodologies, the volatility of the expense (which depends on market forces outside our control), and the assumptions and the variety of award types that a company can use. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA have limitations as measures of our performance. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect our historical cash expenditures or future cash requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments. While EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are relevant and widely used measures of performance, they do not represent net income or cash flows from operations as defined by GAAP. Further, our computation of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similar measures reported by other companies. Year-Ended December 31, ($ in thousands) 2021 2020 2019 Net (loss) income
$ 5,342 $ (747) $ 10,579Net loss attributed to non-controlling interest (6) (7) (1) Interest, net Consolidated interest income (57) (884) (1,239) Our share of interest expense from unconsolidated joint ventures 1,708 1,902 2,785 Total interest, net 1,651 1,018 1,546 Income tax expense 3,821 829 3,980 Depreciation and amortization Consolidated 4,594 4,938 5,036 Our share of depreciation and amortization from unconsolidated joint ventures 4,639 4,419 4,135 Total depreciation and amortization 9,233 9,357 9,171 EBITDA 20,053 10,464 25,277 Stock compensation expense 4,271 4,494 3,198 Asset abandonment charges - - 1,604 Adjusted EBITDA $ 24,324 $ 14,958 $ 30,07955
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net operating income (NOI) is a non-GAAP financial measure calculated as operating income, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, excluding general and administrative expenses, interest expense, depreciation and amortization, and gain or loss on sales of real estate. We believe NOI provides useful information to investors regarding our financial condition and results of operations because it primarily reflects those income and expense items that are incurred at the property level. Therefore, we believe NOI is a useful measure for evaluating the operating performance of our real estate assets. ($ in thousands) Year-Ended December 31, Net operating income 2021 2020 2019 Pastoria Energy Facility
$ 4,355 $ 4,576 $ 4,573TRCC 1,250 1,290 1,488 Communication leases 940 911 912 Other commercial leases 609 557 650
Total Commercial/Industrial Net Operating Profit
$ 7,623Year-Ended December 31, ($ in thousands) 2021 2020 2019 Commercial/Industrial operating income $ 7,523 $ 2,414 $ 3,831Plus: Commercial/Industrial depreciation and amortization 463 486 517 Plus: General, administrative and other expenses 10,950 6,137 11,907 Less: Other revenues including land sales (11,782) (1,703) (8,632)
Total Commercial/Industrial Net Operating Profit
The Company utilizes NOI of unconsolidated joint ventures as a measure of financial or operating performance that is not specifically defined by GAAP. We believe NOI of unconsolidated joint ventures provides investors with additional information concerning operating performance of our unconsolidated joint ventures. We also use this measure internally to monitor the operating performance of our unconsolidated joint ventures. Our computation of this non-GAAP measure may not be the same as similar measures reported by other companies. This non-GAAP financial measure should not be considered as an alternative to net income as a measure of the operating performance of our unconsolidated joint ventures or to cash flows computed in accordance with GAAP as a measure of liquidity nor are they indicative of cash flows from operating and financial activities of our unconsolidated joint ventures.
The following table reconciles the net income of unconsolidated joint ventures with the net income of unconsolidated joint ventures.
Year-Ended December 31, ($ in thousands) 2021 2020 2019
Net income from unconsolidated joint ventures
$ 30,213Plus: Interest expense of unconsolidated joint ventures 4,926 5,154 5,438 Operating income of unconsolidated joint ventures 21,678 12,253 35,651 Plus: Depreciation and amortization of unconsolidated joint ventures 8,720 8,323 7,773 Less: Gain on sale of asset - - (17,537) Less: Profit from sale of land (10,380) - - Net operating income of unconsolidated joint ventures $ 20,018 $ 20,576 $ 25,88756
SECTION 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE INFORMATION ON MARKET RISK
Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact the financial position, results of operations, or cash flows of the Company due to adverse changes in financial or commodity market prices or rates. We are exposed to market risk in the areas of interest rates and commodity prices.
Financial market risks
Our exposure to financial market risks includes changes to interest rates and credit risks related to marketable securities, interest rates related to our outstanding indebtedness and trade receivables. The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve principal while at the same time maximizing yields and prudently managing risk. To achieve this objective and limit interest rate exposure, we limit our investments to securities with a maturity of less than five years and an investment grade rating from Moody's or Standard and Poor's. See Note 3 (
Marketable Securities) of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Our current RLC has no outstanding balance. The interest rate on the RLC can either float at 1.50% over a selected LIBOR rate or can be fixed at 1.50% above LIBOR for a fixed term for a limited period of time and change only at maturity of the fixed rate portion. The floating rate and fixed rate options within our RLC help us manage our interest rate exposure on any outstanding balances. We are exposed to interest rate risk on our long-term debt. Long-term debt consists of two term loans, one for $50,837,000and is tied to LIBOR plus a margin of 1.70%. The interest rate for the term of this loan has been fixed through the use of an interest rate swap that fixed the rate at 4.16%. The outstanding balance on the second term loan is $1,947,000and has a fixed rate of 4.25%. We believe it is prudent at times to limit the variability of floating-rate interest payments and have from time-to-time entered into interest rate swap arrangements to manage those fluctuations, as we did with the Term Loan. Market risk related to our farming inventories ultimately depends on the value of almonds, grapes, and pistachios at the time of payment or sale. Credit risk related to our receivables depends upon the financial condition of our customers. Based on historical experience with our current customers and periodic credit evaluations of our customers' financial conditions, we believe our credit risk is minimal. Market risk related to our farming inventories is discussed below in the section pertaining to commodity price exposure. 57 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The following tables provide information about our financial instruments that are sensitive to changes in interest rates. The tables present our debt and marketable securities and their associated weighted average interest rates by expected maturity dates.
Interest Rate Sensitivity Financial Market Risks Principal Amount by Expected Maturity At December 31, 2021 (In thousands except percentage data) 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Thereafter Total Fair Value Assets: Marketable securities
$9,834 $756$- $- $- $- $10,590 $10,983Weighted average interest rate 0.20% 0.22% -% -% -% -% 0.20% Liabilities: Long-term debt ( $4.75Mnote) $254 $265 $277 $289 $302 $560 $1,947 $1,947Weighted average interest rate 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% Long-term debt ( $70.0Mnote) $4,221 $4,429 $4,624 $4,825 $5,038 $27,700 $50,837 $50,837Weighted average interest rate 4.16% 4.16% 4.16% 4.16% 4.16% 4.16% 4.16% Interest Rate Sensitivity Financial Market Risks Principal Amount by Expected Maturity At December 31, 2020 (In thousands except percentage data) 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Thereafter Total Fair Value Assets: Marketable securities $2,766$- $- $- $- $- $2,766 $2,771Weighted average interest rate 0.99% -% -% -% -% -% 0.99% Liabilities: Long-term debt ( $4.75Mnote) $244 $254 $265 $277 $289 $862 $2,191 $2,191Weighted average interest rate 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% 4.25% Long-term debt ( $70.0Mnote) $4,051 $4,221 $4,429 $4,624 $4,825 $32,737 $54,887 $54,887Weighted average interest rate 4.16% 4.16% 4.16% 4.16% 4.16% 4.16%
Our risk with regard to fluctuations in interest rates has decreased slightly related to marketable securities since these balances have decreased compared to the prior year. Commodity Price Exposure As of
December 31, 2021, we have exposure to adverse price fluctuations associated with certain inventories and accounts receivable. Farming inventories consist of farming cultural and processing costs related to 2021 and 2020 crop production. The farming costs inventoried are recorded at actual costs incurred. Historically, these costs have been recovered each year when that year's crop harvest has been sold. With respect to accounts receivable, the amount at risk relates primarily to farm crops. These receivables are recorded based on estimated final pricing. The final price is generally not known for several months following the close of our fiscal year. Of the $6,473,000in outstanding accounts receivable at December 31, 2021, $2,409,000or 37%, is at risk for changing prices, all of which is attributed to pistachios. 58
The price estimated for recording accounts receivable for pistachios recorded at
December 31, 2021was $2.14per pound, as compared to $2.04per pound at December 31, 2020. For each $0.01change in the price per pound of pistachios, our receivable for pistachios increases or decreases by $11,200. Although the final price per pound of pistachios (and therefore the extent of the risk) is not presently known, over the last three years prices have ranged from $1.98to $2.14.
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